science and religion in history

Science and Religion: Who runs the world – God or the scientists?

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The Catholic Church: science and religion in the Middle Ages

The science and religion debate simply didn’t exist in the Middle Ages. God runs the world – no question.  That’s what nearly everybody in the Middle Ages would have said if you had been able to ask them.  Why?  Because the Church said so.  Its influence was world-wide, all-embracing, all-pervasive, all-powerful, and universal.  The Holy Catholic Church.  (That’s what ‘Catholic’ ‘means – ‘universal’)  It dominated the world – well, the world known to medieval man.  That was all he had to go on.

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From Portcullis to Turnstile: A brief history of castles

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When noblemen built castles in the Middle Ages, it was usually to keep people out. They were designed as places of refuge, protection, and defence. In some cases of defiance; a bad baron in a strong castle could snap his fingers at a weak king.

Look at the outside of these buildings even today – battlements, slit windows, huge gates, drawbridges, rings of towers, walls fifteen feet thick. Castle architects put home comforts very far down the list of priorities.

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